Explain Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of socialization.
Sigmund Freud’s theory of socialization states that individuals must control their selfish nature so that they can work for the betterment of society. It is through socialization, that one tries to change their desires and instincts into ways that are accepted by society. He explained this by three parts of personality, id, ego, and superego.
Id is our basic impulse. It is focused on gaining pleasure and ignoring the pain. If a person follows their id, they indulge in selfish behavior and ignore the norms, rules, and standards of society. For example, a kid wants to go on a ride and cries until the parents took him on the ride.
Superego means one’s ethics and values which a person understands through socialization. The norms of society are followed in the superego and the person hears an inner voice that guides them to do what is right and avoid what is wrong according to societal standards. For example- A student wants to cheat in an exam so to pass but she knows that cheating is wrong and did not use the chit paper knowing that she won’t get caught for cheating.
The ego keeps a balance in a person’s personality. It is between Id and Superego. The ego helps to regulate behaviors that it is by societal norms. They control our desires when it tries to do something selfish. For example, when someone else is paying for our dinner, we try to order food that is within the person’s budget.