Course Content
Survival of the Fittest
Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer
Moral Actions – Spencer
Types of Cooperation – Herbert Spencer
Critique of Communism and Socialism
Society as a Thing – Spencer and Realism
Comparative-Historical Method
Value Free Sociology of Spencer
Criticism of Herbert Spencer
Herbert Spencer
    About Lesson

    Sociology and Biology

    Spencer saw three critical connections between society and biology. 

    First, he believed that human behavior, which determines all social behaviors, abides by the fundamental rules of existence. So, to understand social behavior, a sociologist must be familiar with the basic principles of life, and biology aids in our understanding of these principles. 

    Furthermore, there are several striking parallels between biology and society. In other words, much like a living organism, society as a whole exhibits traits like development, structure, and function. Thus, a grasp of biology—which is, after all, far simpler to study than the biology of the social organism—offers many keys to comprehending society. According to Spencer’s conclusion, a rational understanding of the realities of biology must first be attained before one can rationally understand the truths of sociology.

    Third, since humans are the “end” issue for biology and the “beginning point” for sociology, there is a logical evolution and connection between the two disciplines.

    The way the survival-of-the-fittest mechanism works in both living and social entities is a more direct connection between biology and sociology. Spencer thought that “survival of the fittest” happens in both the biological and social worlds and that if we learn anything from biology in the natural world, we shouldn’t meddle with this process in the social world.

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    Sociology Plus