Emile Durkheim
    About Lesson

    Organic Solidarity

    Organic solidarity is a kind of social cohesiveness founded on the dependency people in more developed societies have on one another. Industrial and post-industrial cultures are the main settings for organic solidarity, which is based on the division of labor. It refers to the integration of members of industrial society via the interdependence of all people instead of their isolation. Organic solidarity is generally seen in highly technologically advanced cultures where individuals frequently specialize in distinct activities and rely on one another to complete undertakings.

    According to Durkheim, the division of labor is a prerequisite for organic solidarity, progressively replacing that created by social likeness. Here, each person relies on the components that make up society. In this sense, a society is a collection of many distinctive roles connected to one another via social ties. According to this view, individual differences may be shown in the fact that each person has a niche market for their skills and focuses only on it. As a result, the individual conscience differs from the collective conscience.

    Organic Solidarity’s New Collective Consciousness Forms

    Even in civilizations where organic solidarity is higher, social structures are highly organized and have characteristics opposite segmental social structures. A system of several organs, each with a distinct function, forms an organized social network. These organs are made up of several parts that work together and are directed by a single central organ. Within realistic bounds, the remainder of the body is influenced by this core organ. The emergence of an organized social system, in turn, leads to the total merger of the segments. As a result, a person widens his circle of contact. As this process continues, its numerical power grows, and as a result, its influence is no longer limited to the immediate area. The process of segment fusion results in market fusion, which crystallizes into a single market. This practically encompasses the whole civilization and includes the entire people within its bounds. Society as a whole so resembles a big city. Individuals are now classified according to their specific activities rather than their ancestry. The person is not restricted to their place of origin because of the social norms that are in place and the type of labor but is also transported there for employment.

    The degree of interdependence in organized social structures is thus relatively high. The advancement of the division of labor, which determines how the social mass is concentrated, is correlated with a rise in industrialization. Any alteration in one location quickly spreads to the other. Consequently, the use of governmental or legal punishment is required. In conclusion, the organized social organization has a comparatively large volume of material and moral density. With the developments above, societies become larger and larger, further dividing employment. As the people progress, the population becomes ever more concentrated.

    The division of labor results in legal regulations whenever social norms and organic solidarity line up. These shall determine the nature and relationship of specialized duties, and any violations will result in remedial action. Laws that include cooperative or reparative punishments indicate organic solidarity; these laws include civil, commercial, procedural, administrative, and constitutional laws separated from criminal laws and are present in less developed civilizations. Here, there is a nearly identical correlation between mechanical solidarity and criminal law. The scope of cooperative legislation is inversely correlated with that aspect of social life that comprises the relationship created by the division of labor. Here, it is reasonable to exclude those interdependent relationships governed by social norms that link people together based on their shared line of work. The laws and traditions, however, are necessary for organic solidarity. Such solidarity needs to exist that many components work together purposefully, even if not in all respects, at least in predetermined conditions. As a result, the contract is not self-sufficient and instead assumes a set of rules that are just as comprehensive and intricate as the components of the contract itself.

    Based on Forms

    The intensity and determinacy of collective states decrease as society advances due to the increasing growth of the division of labor. As a result, the ability of the collective conscience to lead people in collective directions is waning. Instead, as the guidelines for behavior set out by the collective conscience grow less clear, people have more opportunities for introspection, giving them greater freedom. As a result, individual conscience no longer stays so closely entwined with a collective conscience but instead develops some autonomy.

    Based on the contents

    Collective consciousness increasingly shifts its focus to being secular, humanistic, and logical. These socioeconomic circumstances begin to erode society’s ideals of collective curiosity. With the development of scientific methods, the religious sphere shrinks further, and the formerly robust sphere of collective religious feelings and beliefs begins to wane. The transcendental social traits, which were superior to human concerns, started to lose their appeal more and more.

    Durkheim saw the characteristics of the system of beliefs as a collective conscience. In modern communities, the guiding principles ensure everyone has an equal chance at success and dignity.

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