Ability is the capacity to do a physical or intellectual task before or subsequent to instruction. It is the knowledge or competence, including the potential to gain information or skills and those already obtained.
Ability indicates a person’s current ability to accomplish the many activities required for a particular position and includes skills and relevant knowledge.
Social psychologists often distinguish ability from aptitude, which is the inherent ability to acquire or understand a body of information and is occasionally tested by aptitude tests.
Sociologists would likely differentiate between ability and skill, with the former being somewhat specialized and task-specific and the latter referring to a broader range of acquired approaches applicable to a variety of similar tasks.
Organizational Behavioral classification of ability
In the sociology of organizations, ability is a crucial term for employee-employer analysis. Ability refers to the capacity to master a variety of job-related skills. Organizations must identify the essential skills of workers that will contribute to their success, and people must possess the abilities that will render them valuable assets to a company.
Individual ability is divided into Intellectual ability and Physical ability.
Intellectual Ability: It is one of the most prized qualities in workers. This skill relates to mental qualities such as good memory, verbal understanding, reasoning, evaluation, analysis, and problem-solving, which are all essential to employee competence in businesses.
Physical ability: Workers might possess physical skills such as strength, flexibility, endurance, agility, and balance. Agricultural laborers, trade union members, and industrial employees depend heavily on their physical abilities for their daily livelihood.