Analogy refers to a comparison process to explain social phenomena. For example, the analogy of society to a biological organism or a machine is common in sociology.
An analogy is the comparison of two things to demonstrate a degree of resemblance but not an exact identity. Analogies between social phenomena and mechanical or biological phenomena are the foundational basis of the theories of Herbert Spencer.
This is evident in traditional sociological functionalism, where societies are often seen as “machine-like” or, more commonly, “organism-like” entities with interrelated pieces that support one another.
The use of analogies is sometimes questioned, even though they may occasionally be helpful and even essential in any science. The reason for any assumptions or linkages (such as the analogy between “social requirements” and “animal needs”) must be justified separately. As a result, using analogies always carries some risk.