UGC NET-JRF Sociology June 2012 Question Paper 2 Solved with Answers and Explanation

UGC NET-JRF Sociology June 2012 Question Paper 2 Solved with Answers and Explanation

Question 1:

Sociological perspective is primarily related to an attempt to:

  • (a) Change the social order
  • (b) Understand the social order
  • (c) Reform the social order
  • (d) Adjust to the social order

Answer:

  • (b) Understand the social order

Explanation: The sociological perspective seeks to comprehend the structures, functions, and dynamics of society. This understanding allows sociologists to analyze patterns of behavior, relationships, and social phenomena. The options of changing, reforming, or adjusting to the social order are actions that could follow from this understanding but are not the primary focus of the sociological perspective.


Question 2:

Match the items in List–I with the items in List–II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List–I (Concepts) A. The poverty of philosophy
B. Symbolic interactionism
C. Manifest and latent function
D. The social construction of reality

List–II (Social Scientists) i. Peter Berger and T. Luckman
ii. Karl Marx
iii. Herbert Blumer
iv. R.K. Merton

Codes:

ABCD
(a)(i)(iv)(ii)(iii)
(b)(ii)(iii)(iv)(i)
(c)(iii)(ii)(i)(iv)
(d)(iv)(iii)(ii)(i)

Answer:

  • (b) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)

Explanation:

  • Karl Marx wrote “The Poverty of Philosophy,” critiquing economic theories.
  • Herbert Blumer developed symbolic interactionism, focusing on the subjective aspects of social life.
  • R.K. Merton introduced the concepts of manifest (intended) and latent (unintended) functions.
  • Peter Berger and Thomas Luckman co-authored “The Social Construction of Reality,” exploring how knowledge and reality are socially constructed.

Question 3:

Which among the following is an example of a community?

  • (a) Family
  • (b) Marriage
  • (c) Village
  • (d) Refugee Camp

Answer:

  • (c) Village

Explanation: A village is an example of a community as it consists of people living in a specific locality with shared values, norms, and interactions. A family is a smaller social unit, marriage is an institution, and a refugee camp is often temporary and lacks the permanent, cohesive structure of a community.


Question 4:

Emile Durkheim defines society as:

  • (a) Community of ideas
  • (b) Homogeneous community
  • (c) Moral community
  • (d) Ethical community

Answer:

  • (c) Moral community

Explanation: Durkheim’s concept of society emphasizes the collective conscience and shared moral values that bind individuals together, making society a moral community. The other options partially capture aspects of Durkheim’s thought but do not fully convey his focus on the moral bonds that create social cohesion.


Question 5:

Assertion (A): According to Karl Marx, class exploitation can be brought to an end only when the means of production are communally owned.

Reason (R): The ruling class derives its power from the ownership and control of the means of production.

Codes:

  • (a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
  • (b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
  • (c) (A) is true but (R) is false.
  • (d) (A) is false but (R) is true.

Answer:

  • (a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)

Explanation: Marx theorized that the proletariat’s exploitation by the bourgeoisie would cease with communal ownership of the means of production, eliminating the power held by the ruling class through private ownership. The assertion and reason are aligned correctly here, providing a coherent explanation of Marx’s theory.


Question 6:

Which one among the following is an instance of social action according to Max Weber?

  • (a) Two cyclists colliding with each other.
  • (b) Persons traveling in a train.
  • (c) Two cyclists exchanging blows after they collide.
  • (d) Persons opening umbrellas when it starts raining.

Answer:

  • (c) Two cyclists exchanging blows after they collide

Explanation: Weber’s concept of social action involves actions that individuals attach meaning to and are oriented towards the actions of others. The exchange of blows involves intentional and meaningful interaction, fitting Weber’s definition. The other scenarios lack the meaningful social interaction necessary for Weber’s concept of social action.


Question 7:

Which among the following is not, in Marxian terminology, a component of the mode of production?

  • (a) Means of production
  • (b) Instruments of production
  • (c) Forces of production
  • (d) Relations of production

Answer:

  • (b) Instruments of production

Explanation: In Marxian terms, the mode of production includes the means of production (tools, land, etc.), forces of production (labor power and means), and relations of production (social relations involved in production). Instruments of production are part of the means of production but are not a distinct component.


Question 8:

The Weberian model of social stratification has been used in the study of caste by:

  • (a) S.C. Dube
  • (b) M.N. Srinivas
  • (c) T.N. Madan
  • (d) Andre Beteille

Answer:

  • (d) Andre Beteille

Explanation: Andre Beteille applied Weber’s model, which considers class, status, and power, to analyze caste in India. This approach helps understand the complexities of caste stratification. While M.N. Srinivas is known for his work on caste, he focused more on the concept of Sanskritization rather than Weberian stratification.


Question 9:

Which one among the following concepts is, according to Merton, capable of theoretically dealing with change?

  • (a) Eufunction
  • (b) Non-function
  • (c) Quasifunction
  • (d) Dysfunction

Answer:

  • (d) Dysfunction

Explanation: Merton’s concept of dysfunction addresses the negative consequences of social structures, which can lead to social change. Eufunctions and non-functions do not specifically address change, while quasifunctions are not part of Merton’s theoretical framework.


Question 10:

Sanskritization implies:

  • (a) Change in caste structure
  • (b) Change of caste structure
  • (c) Change for caste structure
  • (d) None of the above

Answer:

  • (a) Change in caste structure

Explanation: Sanskritization involves lower castes adopting the practices and rituals of higher castes to elevate their social status, leading to changes within the caste hierarchy. The other options imply broader changes or different directions of change that do not specifically capture this upward movement within the caste system.


Question 11:

A teacher, in carrying out his duties, has to respond to the expectations of his colleagues, students, and guardians of the students. These people constitute for the teacher’s:

  • (a) Status set
  • (b) Multiple roles
  • (c) Role-set
  • (d) None of the above

Answer:

  • (c) Role-set

Explanation: Merton’s concept of a role-set refers to the array of roles associated with a particular status. A teacher’s role-set includes interactions with colleagues, students, and parents. Status set refers to all statuses a person holds, while multiple roles imply different roles across different statuses.


Question 12:

Which one of the following is not an institution?

  • (a) Marriage
  • (b) Education
  • (c) Policing
  • (d) Pick-pocketing

Answer:

  • (d) Pick-pocketing

Explanation: Social institutions are established structures and norms that organize and regulate societal behavior, such as marriage, education, and policing. Pick-pocketing is a deviant act and not an institution. The incorrect options are all recognized social institutions.


Question 13:

The prohibition of sagotra marriage among the Hindus is an example of marriage:

  • (a) Taboo
  • (b) Clan exogamy
  • (c) The rules of caste endogamy
  • (d) The incest taboo

Answer:

  • (b) Clan exogamy

Explanation: Sagotra marriages are prohibited to ensure individuals marry outside their clan, an example of exogamy. The incest taboo prevents marriage between close relatives but is broader than just sagotra. Caste endogamy refers to marrying within the same caste, not necessarily outside the clan.


Question 14:

Which one of the following is known as the process by which cultural traits spread from one culturally distinct group to another?

  • (a) Evolution
  • (b) Assimilation
  • (c) Accommodation
  • (d) Diffusion

Answer:

  • (d) Diffusion

Explanation: Diffusion involves the spread of cultural elements between groups, facilitating cultural exchange. Assimilation involves one group absorbing another’s traits, accommodation involves adjustments without full absorption, and evolution refers to broader biological or cultural changes over time.


Question 15:

The movement of a person from the position of clerk in Calcutta headquarters of L.I.C. to that position in Delhi headquarters of L.I.C. is an example of:

  • (a) Horizontal mobility
  • (b) Upward mobility
  • (c) Vertical mobility
  • (d) Downward mobility

Answer:

  • (a) Horizontal mobility

Explanation: Horizontal mobility refers to changes in position without altering social status, such as moving from one location to another in the same job role. Upward and downward mobility involve changes in social status, either higher or lower. Vertical mobility includes both upward and downward movements.


Question 16:

When an Indian couple prepares its daughter so that she is accepted in her husband’s family after her marriage, it is a case of:

  • (a) Socialization
  • (b) Resocialization
  • (c) Anticipatory socialization
  • (d) Adult socialization

Answer:

  • (c) Anticipatory socialization

Explanation: Anticipatory socialization involves adopting behaviors and norms of a group one expects to join in the future. Preparing a daughter for her husband’s family fits this process. Resocialization refers to completely adopting new norms, while adult socialization and socialization are broader processes not specific to future expectations.


Question 17:

According to Durkheim, religion consists in the distinction between:

  • (a) The sacred and the secular
  • (b) The pure and the impure
  • (c) The sacred and the profane
  • (d) The gods and the ghosts

Answer:

  • (c) The sacred and the profane

Explanation: Durkheim defined religion by the division between sacred (holy, set apart) and profane (ordinary, everyday) elements. This distinction forms the basis of religious belief and practice. The other options do not accurately capture Durkheim’s fundamental distinction in religious studies.


Question 18:

Resocialization is clearly evident when a:

  • (a) Girl’s marriage just takes place
  • (b) Child is born
  • (c) Person works as a member of a revolutionary party
  • (d) Child starts going to school

Answer:

  • (c) Person works as a member of a revolutionary party

Explanation: Resocialization involves adopting new norms and behaviors, often in a significantly different environment. Joining a revolutionary party requires adopting a radically different ideology and behaviors. The other options involve socialization but not the complete change implied by resocialization.

Question 19:

Match the items in List–I with the items in List–II and choose the correct answer from the codes given below:

List–I A. Looking-glass self
B. Alienation
C. Cultural lag
D. Positivism

List–II i. Karl Marx
ii. William Ogburn
iii. G.H. Mead
iv. Auguste Comte
v. C.H. Cooley

Codes:

ABCD
(a)(v)(i)(ii)(iv)
(b)(i)(ii)(iii)(v)
(c)(iv)(iii)(ii)(i)
(d)(iii)(iv)(i)(ii)

Answer:

  • (a) (v) (i) (ii) (iv)

Explanation:

  • Looking-glass self (C.H. Cooley): Cooley’s concept explains how individuals form their self-concepts based on their understanding of how others perceive them.
  • Alienation (Karl Marx): Marx described alienation as the estrangement of people from aspects of their human nature due to living in a society stratified into social classes.
  • Cultural lag (William Ogburn): This concept refers to the period of maladjustment when the non-material culture is still adapting to new material conditions.
  • Positivism (Auguste Comte): Comte introduced positivism, emphasizing that the scientific method should be applied to the study of society.

Question 20:

Which among the following features emerged due to privatization of education in India?

  • (a) Emergence of private schools at the village level
  • (b) Emergence of market research
  • (c) Mushrooming growth of educational institutions
  • (d) Provision of scholarships to the poor students

Answer:

  • (c) Mushrooming growth of educational institutions

Explanation: Privatization led to a rapid increase in the number of educational institutions as private entities entered the education sector to meet rising demand. This growth has been one of the most visible impacts of privatization. The emergence of private schools and market research are indirect effects, while provision of scholarships is not a direct result of privatization.


Question 21:

Which of the following ideas are considered at the core of Michel Foucault’s methodology?

  • (a) Genealogy of power
  • (b) Micro-politics of power
  • (c) Archaeology of knowledge
  • (d) Power at the societal level

Answer:

  • (a) Genealogy of power and (c) Archaeology of knowledge

Explanation: Foucault’s methodology includes the “genealogy of power,” which explores the historical development of power relations, and the “archaeology of knowledge,” which examines the underlying structures of thought in different periods. These core ideas are fundamental to his analysis of societal structures.


Question 22:

Formulating a new theory drawing upon Marx’s thinking by revising and reorienting it is labelled as:

  • (a) Neo-Marxian Theory
  • (b) Post-Marxian Theory
  • (c) Pre-Marxian Theory
  • (d) A Critique of Marx’s Theory

Answer:

  • (a) Neo-Marxian Theory

Explanation: Neo-Marxian theory updates and extends Marxist theory to address contemporary issues, incorporating elements from other intellectual traditions. Post-Marxian might suggest moving beyond Marxism entirely, and Pre-Marxian does not apply to new formulations. A critique could involve evaluations but does not necessarily imply a new theoretical framework.


Question 23:

Crude Birth Rate (CBR) is labelled as such because it does not take into account:

  • (a) Demographic transition
  • (b) Mortality rate
  • (c) Age and sex composition of the population
  • (d) None of the above

Answer:

  • (c) Age and sex composition of the population

Explanation: CBR is termed “crude” because it simply measures the number of live births per 1,000 people in a population without considering the age and sex distribution, which can significantly affect birth rates. This simplicity makes it a less precise measure than age-specific birth rates.


Question 24:

Who is the author of the book “Ethnic Plurality in India”?

  • (a) R.A. Schermerhorn
  • (b) M.N. Srinivas
  • (c) Robert Bierstadt
  • (d) A.R. Desai

Answer:

  • (a) R.A. Schermerhorn

Explanation: R.A. Schermerhorn wrote about the diversity and coexistence of various ethnic groups in India. The other authors are noted sociologists, but they are known for other significant works in Indian sociology.


Question 25:

Match the concepts given in the List–I with statements given in the List–II:

List–I A. Practical Rationality
B. Theoretical Rationality
C. Substantive Rationality
D. Formal Rationality

List–II i. Cognitive processes as logical deduction, induction, and attribution of causality.
ii. Worldly activities viewed in terms of individual’s pragmatic and egoistic intentions.
iii. Means-end calculation and universally applied rules.
iv. Choice of means and ends within the context of system value.

Codes:

ABCD
(a)2143
(b)1432
(c)2134
(d)3421

Answer:

  • (c) 2 1 3 4

Explanation:

  • Practical Rationality: Involves pragmatic and egoistic intentions in everyday activities.
  • Theoretical Rationality: Involves cognitive processes like logical deduction, induction, and attribution of causality.
  • Substantive Rationality: Involves choice of means and ends based on system values.
  • Formal Rationality: Involves means-end calculation using universally applied rules.

Question 26:

Which one of the following is not an example of ascribed status?

  • (a) Teacher
  • (b) Student
  • (c) Brahmin
  • (d) Doctor

Answer:

  • (a) Teacher

Explanation: Ascribed status is assigned at birth or involuntarily later in life, such as being a Brahmin. Achieved status, like being a teacher or doctor, results from personal choice and effort. The incorrect options involve achieved statuses except for the Brahmin.


Question 27:

Tertiary sector is also known as:

  • (a) Processing sector
  • (b) Forestry sector
  • (c) Mining sector
  • (d) Services sector

Answer:

  • (d) Services sector

Explanation: The tertiary sector includes services such as retail, entertainment, financial services, and healthcare, which do not produce tangible goods. The other sectors (processing, forestry, and mining) are part of the primary or secondary sectors.


Question 28:

Match the items in List–I with the items in List–II and select the correct answer from the codes given below:

List–I A. Homo Hierarchicus
B. The Savage Mind
C. Caste Class and Power
D. Caste in Modern India and other Essays

List–II i. Claude Levi-Strauss
ii. Andre Beteille
iii. M.N. Srinivas
iv. Louis Dumont

Codes:

ABCD
(a)4123
(b)1324
(c)4132
(d)3241

Answer:

  • (a) 4 1 2 3

Explanation:

  • Homo Hierarchicus (Louis Dumont): A seminal work on the Indian caste system.
  • The Savage Mind (Claude Levi-Strauss): Focuses on structural anthropology and the universal structures of human thought.
  • Caste Class and Power (Andre Beteille): Analyzes the intersection of caste, class, and power in Indian society.
  • Caste in Modern India and other Essays (M.N. Srinivas): Explores various aspects of the caste system and its changes in modern India.

Question 29:

Which one of the following is not a characteristic of a community?

  • (a) Territory
  • (b) A set of social relationships
  • (c) We feeling
  • (d) Language

Answer:

  • (d) Language

Explanation: A community is typically characterized by a specific territory, a network of social relationships, and a sense of collective identity or “we feeling.” While language can be a part of cultural identity, it is not a defining characteristic of a community itself. The incorrect options all describe fundamental aspects of a community’s structure and cohesion.


Question 30:

The change of statuses occurring with sufficient frequency as to be socially patterned can be designated as a:

  • (a) Status-Set
  • (b) Status-Conflict
  • (c) Social-Status
  • (d) Status-Sequence

Answer:

  • (d) Status-Sequence

Explanation: Status-sequence refers to the regular and predictable progression of changes in a person’s status over their life. This concept highlights how societal norms and expectations influence the transition from one status to another. The incorrect options do not specifically describe the patterned nature of status changes over time.


Question 31:

When the performer of a role adopts a subjective detachment from the role, it is called:

  • (a) Role-Conflict
  • (b) Role-Taking
  • (c) Role-Distancing
  • (d) Role-Set

Answer:

  • (c) Role-Distancing

Explanation: Role-distancing occurs when individuals consciously separate themselves from a role they are performing, often to manage their identity or cope with role strain. Role-conflict involves conflicting expectations, role-taking refers to adopting a role, and role-set refers to the array of roles associated with a status.


Question 32:

Which one of the following statements represents the idea of C. Wright Mills about sociological imagination?

  • (a) Looking social world as social fact.
  • (b) Understanding differences among the classical theorists.
  • (c) Bringing together private troubles and public issues.
  • (d) Avoiding individual-based explanation.

Answer:

  • (c) Bringing together private troubles and public issues

Explanation: C. Wright Mills emphasized the sociological imagination as the ability to link individual experiences and societal relationships, understanding how personal troubles are connected to larger social issues. The other options do not capture the essence of this integrative perspective.


Question 33:

Who amongst the following says that sociology is the study of collective representation?

  • (a) Weber
  • (b) Durkheim
  • (c) Comte
  • (d) Spencer

Answer:

  • (b) Durkheim

Explanation: Émile Durkheim described sociology as the study of collective representations, which are the shared beliefs and values that bind a society together. Weber, Comte, and Spencer made significant contributions to sociology but did not define it in these terms.


Question 34:

According to Max Weber, an ideal type is:

  • (a) The most common situation in a given society
  • (b) Philosophical model of an ideal society
  • (c) Conceptual or analytical tool to understand social phenomena
  • (d) Statistical evidence collected by social researchers

Answer:

  • (c) Conceptual or analytical tool to understand social phenomena

Explanation: Weber’s ideal type is a conceptual tool used to analyze social phenomena by creating a model that accentuates key characteristics. It is not a description of actual societal conditions or a collection of statistical data. The other options misrepresent the purpose of an ideal type.


Question 35:

According to whom internalized ‘shared values’ are regarded as playing a decisive role in the social integration of any society?

  • (a) T. Parsons
  • (b) B. Malinowski
  • (c) E. Durkheim
  • (d) R.K. Merton

Answer:

  • (a) T. Parsons

Explanation: Talcott Parsons emphasized the importance of shared values in achieving social integration, suggesting that societal stability depends on a consensus of core values. While Durkheim also recognized the role of collective conscience, Parsons specifically framed it in terms of shared values and social systems.


Question 36:

Which according to Robert Redfield is not the characteristic of Little Community?

  • (a) Distinctiveness
  • (b) Homogeneity
  • (c) Location
  • (d) Self-sufficiency

Answer:

  • (c) Location

Explanation: Robert Redfield described little communities as characterized by distinctiveness, homogeneity, and self-sufficiency. Location, while relevant, is not a defining characteristic in his conceptualization. The other options directly relate to the social and cultural features of small, cohesive communities.


Question 37:

Match the items in List–I with List–II:

List–I (Books) A. Patterns of Culture
B. Primitive Culture
C. A Scientific Theory of Culture
D. Notes Towards the Definition of Culture

List–II (Authors) i. T.S. Eliot
ii. E.B. Tylor
iii. Ruth Benedict
iv. B. Malinowski

Codes:

ABCD
(a)(iii)(ii)(iv)(i)
(b)(iv)(ii)(i)(iii)
(c)(ii)(iii)(iv)(i)
(d)(iii)(ii)(i)(iv)

Answer:

  • (a) (iii) (ii) (iv) (i)

Explanation:

  • Patterns of Culture (Ruth Benedict): A seminal work on cultural anthropology.
  • Primitive Culture (E.B. Tylor): A foundational text in cultural anthropology.
  • A Scientific Theory of Culture (B. Malinowski): Focuses on the functional analysis of culture.
  • Notes Towards the Definition of Culture (T.S. Eliot): Examines culture from a literary and social perspective.

Question 38:

Which one of the following is not the characteristic of a community?

  • (a) Territory
  • (b) A set of social relationships
  • (c) We feeling
  • (d) Language

Answer:

  • (d) Language

Explanation: While language is an important cultural component, it is not a defining characteristic of a community. A community is typically defined by its specific territory, social relationships, and collective identity or “we feeling.” The other options all describe fundamental aspects of a community’s structure and cohesion.


Question 39:

The change of statuses occurring with sufficient frequency as to be socially patterned can be designated as a:

  • (a) Status-Set
  • (b) Status-Conflict
  • (c) Social-Status
  • (d) Status-Sequence

Answer:

  • (d) Status-Sequence

Explanation: Status-sequence refers to the regular and predictable progression of changes in a person’s status over their life. This concept highlights how societal norms and expectations influence the transition from one status to another. The incorrect options do not specifically describe the patterned nature of status changes over time.


Question 40:

The performance of social roles according to the expectations of the society is called:

  • (a) Role-Conflict
  • (b) Role-Playing
  • (c) Role-Taking
  • (d) Role-Making

Answer:

  • (b) Role-Playing

Explanation: Role-playing refers to the enactment of behaviors associated with a particular role according to societal expectations. Role-conflict involves conflicting role expectations, role-taking involves adopting a role, and role-making involves creating and modifying roles through interaction.


Question 41:

Which of the following is not a factor of social change?

  • (a) Biological
  • (b) Cultural
  • (c) Physical
  • (d) Emotional

Answer:

  • (d) Emotional

Explanation: Biological, cultural, and physical factors are recognized as significant influences on social change, affecting population dynamics, cultural evolution, and environmental conditions. Emotional factors, while impactful on an individual level, are not typically classified as major drivers of societal change.


Question 42:

According to M. N. Srinivas, the process by which a lower caste changes its customs, rituals, and way of life in the direction of a high, and frequently, a twice-born caste is known as:

  • (a) Sanskritization
  • (b) Modernization
  • (c) Westernization
  • (d) Globalization

Answer:

  • (a) Sanskritization

Explanation: Srinivas coined the term “Sanskritization” to describe the process where lower castes adopt the customs and practices of higher castes to improve their social status. Modernization and Westernization refer to broader societal changes, while globalization involves worldwide integration and exchange.


Question 43:

Which one of the following is not considered a primary group?

  • (a) Family
  • (b) Peer group
  • (c) Work group
  • (d) Political party

Answer:

  • (d) Political party

Explanation: Primary groups are characterized by close, personal, and enduring relationships, such as family and peer groups. Work groups can also exhibit these characteristics depending on their context. Political parties are more structured and impersonal, fitting the description of secondary groups.


Question 44:

Who has written the book ‘Suicide’?

  • (a) Max Weber
  • (b) Emile Durkheim
  • (c) Karl Marx
  • (d) Talcott Parsons

Answer:

  • (b) Emile Durkheim

Explanation: Durkheim’s seminal work “Suicide” analyzes the social factors contributing to suicide, establishing a foundational text in sociological study. Weber, Marx, and Parsons made significant contributions to sociology, but none authored this particular work.


Question 45:

Which one among the following is not an example of achieved status?

  • (a) Doctor
  • (b) Teacher
  • (c) Mother
  • (d) Engineer

Answer:

  • (c) Mother

Explanation: Achieved statuses are acquired through personal effort, such as becoming a doctor, teacher, or engineer. Being a mother is typically an ascribed status, associated with biological and familial relationships rather than personal achievement.


Question 46:

The Indian sociologist who has worked on the concept of ‘Dominant Caste’ is:

  • (a) A.R. Desai
  • (b) M.N. Srinivas
  • (c) D.P. Mukerji
  • (d) G.S. Ghurye

Answer:

  • (b) M.N. Srinivas

Explanation: M.N. Srinivas introduced the concept of the “dominant caste,” referring to a caste that wields significant economic and political power in a locality. Desai, Mukerji, and Ghurye made notable contributions to Indian sociology but did not focus on this concept.


Question 47:

Which of the following terms is used to describe the process by which a culture is transformed due to the massive influx of another culture?

  • (a) Acculturation
  • (b) Assimilation
  • (c) Enculturation
  • (d) Integration

Answer:

  • (a) Acculturation

Explanation: Acculturation refers to the process of cultural change resulting from the meeting and interaction of different cultures. Assimilation involves the absorption of one culture into another, enculturation is the process of learning one’s own culture, and integration involves combining elements of multiple cultures into a cohesive whole.


Question 48:

In the study of social mobility, the movement from one occupation to another of a similar social status is known as:

  • (a) Vertical mobility
  • (b) Horizontal mobility
  • (c) Structural mobility
  • (d) Circulatory mobility

Answer:

  • (b) Horizontal mobility

Explanation: Horizontal mobility involves changes in occupation or social position without a change in social status. Vertical mobility involves moving up or down the social hierarchy, structural mobility results from changes in the societal structure, and circulatory mobility involves the movement of individuals within a social system.


Question 49:

Which one of the following is not a characteristic of bureaucracy according to Max Weber?

  • (a) Hierarchical structure
  • (b) Rational-legal authority
  • (c) Impersonality
  • (d) Personal relationships

Answer:

  • (d) Personal relationships

Explanation: Weber’s ideal type of bureaucracy is characterized by a hierarchical structure, rational-legal authority, and impersonality, which ensures that decisions are made based on rules rather than personal connections. Personal relationships are antithetical to bureaucratic principles.


Question 50:

The term ‘Anomie’ was introduced by:

  • (a) Max Weber
  • (b) Emile Durkheim
  • (c) Karl Marx
  • (d) Talcott Parsons

Answer:

  • (b) Emile Durkheim

Explanation: Durkheim introduced the term “anomie” to describe a state of normlessness, where societal norms fail to regulate individual behavior, often leading to social instability. Weber, Marx, and Parsons discussed various aspects of social theory but did not coin this term.

Sociology Plus
Logo