The term “causation” describes a situation in which one variable causes another.
The scenario in which many factors have “cause and effect” linkages is called causation. The premise of causation is that variables that behave predictably may affect related variables and that this link can be inferred by repeated, direct observation.
Theories of causality serve as the foundation for social science since it tries to identify and explain the causal connections between people and structural events. Various theories, including functionalism, all retain different ideas of the nature of causation and causal links due to the heterogeneity among theoretical and methodological methods. Similar to the difference between essential and sufficient causes, other factors have led to its development.
A statistical correlation between the two variables is one typical criterion for determining a causal link. ii) the direction of effect (that changes in the causative factor cause shifts in the dependent variable), and iii) the condition that the connection between the variables is non-spurious.
Sociologists and other scholars can uncover proof of correlation (one thing occurs, and then another happens), but it is harder to prove causation (that one thing occurred as a result of the other occurring), which is the idea that one thing caused the other to occur.