Calvinism is a type of Protestantism that places a high value on restraint, self-sacrifice, and conscientiously fulfilling one’s commitments at work.
The focus was on hard labor, sober and frugal living, and saving rather than wasting money. Work was considered another means to glorify God. With the help of these concepts—collectively referred to as the “Protestant work ethic”—Weber made the case that Calvinist principles significantly impacted the rise of industrial capitalism.
The Reformation in the 16th century caused a split in the western Christian Church. The remaining portion is Protestantism, which is split into several significantly different streams with a wide variety of churches, sects, and denominations within each. The section that continued to accept the authority of the Pope of Rome is now known as the Roman Catholic Church; the remainder is known as the Protestant Church.
One of the critical actors in the Protestant Reformation was the French Protestant theologian John Calvin. In 1509, he was born in France. Calvin created a systematic theological method known as “Calvinism,” which he promoted. “Calvinist” refers to those who adhere to Calvin’s beliefs. Calvinists believe that God predestines people to salvation and embrace the sovereignty of God.
Beliefs and Religion, according to Calvin.
Calvin stressed the part that God plays in the salvation process. He postulated that salvation was predetermined for Christians. This indicates that God predetermined who would receive his gift of salvation before the universe formed.
Calvin upheld a strict interpretation of God’s omnipotence. He believed that God had total control over human behavior and that nothing occurs unless God so chooses. Calvinism’s five pillars are sometimes referred to as the “points.” and are also guided by the acronym T.U.L.I.P.
1. Total depravity: This is the idea that everyone is a sinner born with a sinful nature. Every single person has a sinful nature that begins at birth.
2. Unconditional election: This is the idea that people are already saved by God and cannot choose God until God gives them the ability to.
3. Limited atonement: This doctrine holds that the death of Jesus Christ atoned for only the sins of God’s chosen saints; it excludes the crimes of unbelievers.
4. Irresistible grace: According to this viewpoint, God’s preselected chosen ones cannot reject God’s blessing in their life.
5. Perseverance of the saints: This is the concept that once a person is saved, they can never lose their salvation because they are forever united to Christ.
Weber and Calvinism
Max Weber’s suspicion of the connection he highlighted in his work on the Protestant Ethic thesis is explained by the fact that this form of Christianity gained sway in Holland, Britain, and the American colonies (the center of the creation of the modern economic system). His proof that Calvinism offered a theological framework for the development of contemporary capitalism was Weber’s most significant contribution to the theoretical underpinnings of cultural sociology.
Even Weber admitted that other factors contributed to the growth of capitalism in addition to Calvinism. He accepted that there would have been other factors, but he thought it was important.
Weber tried to flip Marx’s view by proposing that religious ideals and beliefs may be the driving force behind economic progress, while Marx regarded capitalism as the result of material interactions and religion as a reflection of those ties and interests.
Some people have disputed Weber’s findings. According to Eisenstadt (1968), capitalism did exist in regions where Calvinism did not exist, and in some instances, it even preceded Calvinism. He used the Roman Catholic nation of Italy as an example.
Others have noted that there were areas where Calvinism was firmly held, with little capitalist growth and even animosity toward business. The best illustration of this was Scotland, which continued to be impoverished while Calvinism predominated.