The agricultural revolution refers to a drastic change in the production patterns of the farming sector. It relates to the transition in the agricultural sector from hunter-gatherer to settled life, subsistence agriculture to surplus state, and the application of traditional tools to advanced mechanization.
The agricultural revolution, also known as the shift from hunter-gatherer to established agricultural communities, happened in the Middle East approximately 10,000 years ago, resulting in the domestication of animals and crop cultivation.
Whether this agricultural revolution was the result of necessity, as some theorists argue, or of depletion of naturally occurring food supplies, the probability is that the shift happened multiple times because patterns of transition visible in the New World differ markedly from those in the Old World.
The term “Agricultural Revolution” refers to a time when farming underwent a significant transformation. It started in Britain in the early 18th century and expanded to other regions of Europe. During this time, conventional land use patterns and production techniques underwent significant, fundamental changes.
The enclosure movement eliminated the feudal system’s strip-farming practices in favor of the growth of more prominent, privately held agricultural units, changing the land ownership structure.
Production methods changed to produce more food to satisfy the expanding cities’ populations, including adopting more complex and efficient technology and rotation techniques. The changes in the agricultural sector enabled cultural advancement and the development of new social structures.
Advancements accompanied the shift from an agrarian to an industrial civilization in agricultural productivity and organization that enhanced crop and food output. England, in particular, is often regarded as the model for Europe. In the 17th and 18th centuries, changes in agricultural productivity were linked to a rising population, healthier diets, and expanding urbanization. This is regarded as one of the causes of the European industrial revolution.
With gains in agricultural production and a long-term fall in the share of the working population engaged in agriculture, significant shifts persisted throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.
Various nations experienced agricultural revolutions at different times. For example, India’s 1960s green revolution contributed to agricultural self-sufficiency.
Agricultural Revolution eras
1. First Agricultural Revolution 10,000 BC
The change from hunting and gathering to settled farming happened during the prehistoric transition, also called the Neolithic Revolution.
2. Arab Revolution 8th–13th century
The proliferation of cutting-edge techniques and novel crops across the Muslim world.
3. 17th–19th century British Agricultural Revolution
Increased agricultural production in Great Britain to previously unheard-of levels.
4. 17th–19th century: The Scottish Agricultural Revolution
The conversion of agriculture into a modern, effective system.
5. The 1930s to 1960s: Third Agricultural Revolution
The Green Revolution, a rise in agricultural productivity in emerging nations.