Achievement is the effective completion of a socially specified task or objective or performance concerning it. The successful completion of a significant task requires a significant amount of toil, devotion, ingenuity, and investment of effort.
Talcott Parsons argues in Social Theory and Modern Society (1967) that modern societies recruit, select, and assess people for specific jobs based on indicators of success, such as examination credentials or competence in role-related activities, rather than descriptive criteria.
Talcott Parsons saw the recruitment or selection of individuals for certain social positions based on their achievements as a distinguishing element of contemporary civilizations.
However, sociological research suggests that ascription continues to have a role in social stratification, particularly concerning race and sex.
A student attains university rank after a lot of hard work.