New India Manifesto – Chapter 20: Upskilling and Reskilling Group Employment Model
The current model of upskilling and reskilling present in India benefits only a smaller percentage of the population.
The Limitation of the Current Model Includes
- Excessive focus on trades like sewing machine operator at ground level. India government is providing various training services through Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana. However, distance discrimination is limiting people from acquiring different types of skills. Even for individuals who completed the reskilling, the jobs are limited to a minimum salary of around 10,000 INR.
- IT reskilling means teaching software like Tally, MS Office and Photoshop. Joining various shop establishments as a cashier in the billing section seems to be the end goal and foundation of IT reskilling.
- A partial engagement mindset is another issue for people learning various skills. Most people who engage in reskilling are not fully committed to learning the skill as they are not sure whether they will be able to get a job. Government job is the most critical focus of people, and skill jobs are only treated as a backup plan in case of failure to get government jobs.
- The government is not creating a new job market or a new skill market and is only polishing existing skills. Private agencies and the government are currently engaging in polishing the existing skill market.
- Currently, the government provides skilling courses; later, companies hire people. In reality, after 1-2 years, these individuals lose jobs or do zero-saving jobs.
- The valueless foundation of the Indian education system is affecting the fundamental knowledge of each individual. The engineering degree, bachelor’s degree and master’s degree are not creating jobs as these degrees have twin issues. Firstly, the degree itself is based on poor curriculum and training. Secondly, people are provided degrees in areas without an employment market.
- High-earning potential upskilling and reskilling programmes require enormous fees, which is not affordable to average Indians as this is an additional burden after a college education.
The current model should continue by improvising, and a new model should be added.
Upskilling and Reskilling Group Employment Model
Upskilling and Reskilling Group Employment Model aims to create a large batch of individuals with a new skill set that includes new job types that have never been offered or are limited in the nation before. The new model can create new job markets and new skill sets. It will utilise the existing degree-holders efficiently.
The common thing for all these models is that the system creates a purpose and route for employment, and the system empowers people to walk through that path to reach that career. These models will counter the aimless skilling and aimless degrees that have existed in India till now. In this model, age is not an issue and aged people also have a window of hope.
Sample Model 1 – Humanities Students
I will be using humanities degree-holders, especially history, fine arts and archaeology graduates, as the foundation to explain this model. In India, thousands of history degree holders have no clue about what to do next. Only one out of 100 history graduates does a history-related job; the remaining students do low-paid jobs or shift their field. Select 2000 students nationwide who have studied history, fine arts and archaeology as their graduation and post-graduation. Provide the first chance to individuals who have been connected to this subject for a long time.
How to Fund This Model?
Individuals will be allotted a loan amount and an exit option of 30 days. This skill will provide guaranteed employment. However, it should work like a private job with an annual contract renewal, as the job should not be considered a lifetime free-rider. If the individual joining believes it is difficult and cannot complete it, then the person has to exit the course within 30 days of joining. The government can charge 5 lakh per student as the loan amount. All the food and accommodation expenses will be borne from this money.
The course to reskill and upskill the history and archaeology students will be at least 18 months. It will be an intensive reskilling course, and cutting short to a few months is not beneficial.
What to Reskill and Upskill?
This is the most crucial part, as government should be able to create new skills and a new job market. In terms of history, let us consider the past of India. There is recorded evidence of artefacts above 12,000 years in India. Most of these artefacts are kept by archaeological departments, and the remaining are with certain private collectors. No value is generated if these artefacts are kept under government custody.
Creating a national-level website that can legalise, authorise, and transfer artefacts brings the government millions in revenue. Any material with over three samples should be publicly released through this platform. A new market will be created in which there is a huge money flow. Replicas of items should be created for unique items, and the replication process should be taught to these selected individuals. Finding authenticity of artefacts, certifying artefacts, private-funded excavation of historical sites, trading privately kept artefacts, being thorough with historical records, replicating items, and initiating secure handling of artefacts between individuals are the new jobs. If an exact replica of the dancing idol is created, it can be sold for a significant amount.
They will also learn how to excavate, maintain existing structures, and carbon date the age of an antique or an artefact.
The replica of the oldest surviving books also provides the same popularity. This trading platform can transfer Terracotta toys and coins to the public. If private individuals are given ownership of excavated items, privately funded excavation can generate significant income for this new group. This is a monopoly market for the government, and the government can decide tax rates and bidding rules on the website.
The team will release a monthly magazine covering international historical studies of artefacts and Indian achievements. In addition, it will be used to market the various items that are about to be auctioned via the website.
The website will have a mechanism to authenticate the sold items, and in case foreigners are purchasing the artefacts or replicas, they can quickly clear airport checks with the data from the website, including allocated number, images and owner identity.
The upskilled and reskilled groups can be classified internally as anthropological archaeology, palaeography, numismatics, etc.
This model is not meant to support individuals who are immediately out of college. The first chance should be given to people of higher age, especially those above 25. Age should not be a barrier, and anyone who can comprehend and analyse the information taught should be allowed to join this course. Individuals in the ’30s or ’40s and above can join if they perform well. They will be briefed about the complex and difficult course initially and will ensure that they are ready to take the challenge.
Since the returns from these historical artefacts trading platform are high, the salaries provided will also be high. Once the course is completed, the online platform will be operational, and the individuals will be paid good wages. The government will charge back a per cent of their salary to close their course loan.
Additional Features and Workforce
Artworks and sculptures of current-era individuals can also be added to expand the footprint. Authenticating such works and ensuring safe transactions will bring additional income and create an additional workforce.
Once the system is established, additionally 400+ individuals from the history and archaeology domain can be added annually to this system by expanding its activities. Infrastructural development for this system will create employment for people from different domains, such as IT engineers, and create more jobs for over 10,000 people all over India.
Work on request method can be added to the website. For example, people can request a particular painting or sculpture in a specific shape by paying a significant amount.
New museums can be established in rural regions all over India. One new museum can be added to every district in India. It can be introduced in potential tourist areas or existing tourist areas. Parks, fun zones and small zoos can also be started adjacent to the museum. The museums can provide additional employment to people.
The 5 lakh fees collected from 2000 joining students make up a 100-crore investment in student training.
Once the website is operational, the fund required to run the model can be collected from the public by selling items and providing various services.
Sample Model 2 – National Data Collection and Research Centre (NDCRC)
The NSO India data collection, NFHS data collection and statewide data collection of state governments in India are based on a sample population, selective domains and does not cover the opinion of the whole area under survey. In addition, samples are of low quality in the sampling method, and data is inaccurate due to the failure of bureaucratic machinery in proper data collection. Specific data requires only yearly or decadal data collection; however, certain data regularly requires ground-level employees who provide the data consistently. Currently, no framework provides such data regularly at a large scale.
The climate studies and weather studies in India are only using satellite data, and the ground-level impact of the climate and weather is not appropriately studied. Dam and vicinity rain data are the only valuable data the government possesses.
The data collected by the NDCRC should have social, scientific and economic value for the present and future. Therefore, the government should find ways to convert the data into a source of income along with social and environmental commitment.
Most data collection jobs are usually done by state and central government employees. Creating a centralised national-level portal that manages it together can help maximise the utilisation of human and natural resources. Therefore, state and central governments should allot and connect their employees with this system.
The utilisation of different stream graduates for data collection
- Water – The groundwater level of borewells of different regional families should be regularly checked to understand the water table. This will help to impose rules for borewell water usage and additional fees for drilling. Rain gauge analysis of rainfall all over India daily is necessary to measure the importance of water conservation, dam reservoir levels, climatological studies and flooding impact. Canal water level markers can be checked regularly helps to analyse evaporation rates. The steps that must be taken in each region in different months of the year can be studied using this data.
- Soil excavation and movement tracker – new soil movements imaging and topography marking. The software can be developed to compare the topography of the same locations via satellite mapping. It can be used along with direct location visits to stop illegal soil mining. Fines and penalties can be imposed in case of violation. Income via permit system for soil mining will receive more revenue as there is efficient tracking.
- Disaster mapping and updation based on collected data helps predict future events such as floods and assists in relocation beforehand. Topography and terrain marker technologies should be implemented to create awareness among the people. Creating a potential flood zone map in case of particular rainfall and the water level in each location should be developed and regularly updated. Drainage and river overflow studies will help understand about flood control.
- Employing agronomists to account for the various crops cultivated by farmers in every farm field in India and regularly update the data. This data can help to stop the overproduction of commodities and underproduction of some. Government can take precautionary steps in case of overproduction. In case of natural disasters, if any area faces crop loss, the government can immediately account for such information and take remedial steps to adjust the future output of such crops.
- Zero saving job analysis of employed population. All individuals living in different regions will provide employment details, which will help reduce the number of people stuck with zero-saving jobs. Data about unemployment provide insights into solving it.
- NFHS data can be expanded, and data from a larger population can be collected via EAC centres.
- Social workers’ regular monthly house visits of older people will help to raise concerns regarding them. Regular reporting of their health condition via various statistical data will help the government initiate proactive action.
- The socio-economic research team studies imported items via ports, airports and road and find the reason for that import to India. The data collection is to reduce imports and increase domestic manufacturing of every product, from pencil boxes to electronic items.
All these jobs mentioned above require a vast workforce. Therefore, large-scale reskilling and upskilling of graduates from different streams can be used in sample model 2. In the second model, there will be higher pay in areas with research, statistical and mapping software applications, and other direct field-level data collection jobs will have a lesser pay scale.
Many websites will be working under the NDCRC. Each website will have a different purpose. However, data will be freely transferred between each website by the NDCRC for cross-study.
For example, consider a website with disaster mapping. Geography and related sub-disciplines students, disaster management students, and environmental studies students are recruited by the government for disaster mapping. They will be allocated loans and will be trained in the same way as in Model 1. In addition, they will be trained using the most advanced software and technologies.
They will be deployed to collect data according to the needs of the NDCRC and will publish data on their website, which the centralised website of the NDCRC will regulate.
Now at this stage, innovation is required where government needs to find new ways to utilise the data and collect additional data to its benefit. In addition, data processing and data analysis require efficiency. So the website will be converted to a private research company and will be sold to the market. The government will promise annual grants of a particular amount for their contributions. In addition, the government will set a minimum salary and create a rule that the existing employees cannot be terminated without good cause by the company, which is to be also approved by the government for an initial four years as a loan is attached to them.
This way, 100+ companies can be created with 50,000+ employment beneficiaries in the private sector. These companies will also develop technologies that will meet future demands in the process, which can be sold to foreign nations. Moreover, these companies can engage with foreign countries in skilling them to implement the models adopted by India. The government can ensure that there is a spirit to innovate among the private companies and data collection, which will help them secure higher grants for the companies.
NDCRC can also support various research companies via EAC integration centres in collecting ground-level data. These companies can also recruit temporary employees for part-time jobs from colleges for data collection via National Employment System.
Sample Model 3 – Industrial Model
This model should be aimed at short-term skilling for six months. Model 1 and 2 provides employment mainly for graduates. However, regardless of educational status, people willing to be reskilled and upskilled should get opportunities. Currently, government-level training is offered to interested persons at an individual level. The problem with the current model is low salaried placements and low job security.
The industrial model aims to reduce foreign-made end products/finished goods imports and change them to intermediary goods or raw materials. The government will check every container entering India and find the market of that product in India and why that product is not manufactured in India.
The government will tie in with private players for investment in new factories that produce goods in the assembly line method. It can start from decoration items for festivals to large-scale products. Each individual joining for skilling will learn something specific, such as operating a particular part of a machine and also everything related to that production method for general understanding.
The government will fund for skilling of employees, including their food and accommodation expenses. However, once they are employed, half of that spent amount by the government will be collected from their wages and in case they are terminated from that company due to loss, they do not need to pay that amount. This leniency is due to the fact that they have lower education and need systemic support to rise.
Government should also invest in advertising for 1st year of factory products. If imported products have a market at a particular place, then the government should advertise at such places and tell people to avoid imported products. Even if it is a private company, the success of such a company is essential for the government. EAC integration centres are vital in promoting such products.
A targeted shared company model can be used if the government cannot find a private company or MNC to invest in such models.
Sample Model 4 – Tourism Model
Manufacture a tourist destination based on scenic beauty or topographical advantage or coastline.
In this method, the government will make initial investments, such as cable cars in high-end technologies and later transfer to private companies to run it. If private companies are available initially for the whole investment, it should be considered first.
The area surrounding it will also be developed. After considering various international tourist destinations, the government will create a body that develops plans.
Tree huts, food parks and many small businesses will be established surrounding that place and transferred to different people who will be allocated a loan amount with minimal interest rate. Generic graduates from different disciplines, culinary arts, and tourism industry professionals will be recruited initially. They will be trained in various mannerisms, cultures, and other ethics to be followed in dealing with tourists for free by the professionals from Cultural Infusion System. If these structures, such as food parks, are built at high costs by the government, then they would be leased out to them, and the loan amount is allotted only for paying rent, interior works and running the businesses.
For the first year, the government will directly engage with bloggers, vloggers and social media influencers and provide them with free stay, ticket, and travel benefits. The government will bear the cost of the freebies distributed to the celebrities.
Everything will be unique in that place. For example, all the structures surrounding that manufactured tourist spot will have the same painting or coned top for structures.
Everything from parking spaces to fun zones established in such a region can fetch ticket prices and provide a livelihood. At least 1000 new tourist places can be developed all over India in various rural areas and generate employment for about 4 lakh people.
The government can hold 25 per cent of the total planned area initially, and once the tourist destination is developed, it can build new structures, sell it to the public, and earn huge revenue. For example, in a 10-acre proposed tourist area, the government will hold 2.5 acres for future projects.
Sample Model 5 – Financial Planner
This model is developed to create lakhs of crores of additional investment, revenue, profits and capital for the public, government and private sectors by modernising the financial market and formalising currently excluded Indians. India’s national-level financial institutions have created a market for selling life insurance, health insurance, mutual fund, G-sec investment, and banking products such as credit cards only to less than ten crore Indians. The private companies and the government institutions that sell these items and design new products are only interested in catering according to the needs of these ten crore populations, and the competition is limited to this population. A vast population of over 100 crores of the informal economy which engages in informal transactions are needed to be educated in personal finance and financial instruments. A family lawyer, family doctor and financial planner are necessary for every Indian family. A quality financial planner will know the most appropriate portfolio for a person that fits their profession. Therefore, to tap the 18+ population of India, financial market modernisation should be introduced along with transformative projects such as the National Employment System, EAC Integration Centres, and Tax Support System, which are all measures aimed at the formalisation of the economy. Once the government creates a system that provides employment for all, the Cultural Infusion Authority must create a necessity and demand for financial planners in every family in India.
A fixed flat fee-based financial planner should be promoted over commission-based planners as there are no biases or affiliate interests for the planners involved. Such planners will work for the client’s interests instead of the vested interests of insurance companies, mutual funds or banks.
Registered Investment Advisers under SEBI provide financial advice services to Indians who belong to the ten crore population. There are a total of less than 1500 RIA’s until 2023.
Registered Investment Advisers can be expanded to 10,000 all over India and converted to small Targeted Shared Companies model startup companies. This expansion is essential to serve the 100 crore population. Experts from RIA, SEBI, IRDAI and RBI can create a one-year course to upskill and reskill people to create 10000 RIA TSCs quickly and merge various certificate programs to produce high-quality financial planners. Many features from financial planners of US FINRA and similar features from other nations should be added to RIAs in India to create RIA TSCs with multiple services. The newly developed RIA TSCs should work for the long-term financial welfare of the clients, who are not only high-net-worth individuals but are also commoners and small businesses. The government will provide long-term loans with minimal interest rates to TSC owners to launch their RIA-TSC company. The 1-year training course will be paid training, and the amount will be added to the loan. Each TSC will employ at least 20 employees serving a one lakh+ population. The recruited employees will be referred to as the RIA guide, and the owner of RIA-TSC will be called the adviser.
A TSC with 20 employees should have internal segment-wise classification specialisations such as pension fund specialists, tax planners, mutual fund specialists and similar internal divisions.
There should also be sectoral employment-wise classification among TSCs. Corporate TSCs will serve corporate employees. In the same way, to formalise the informal sector, there need to be TSCs that value gig employees, farmers, farm labourers, construction workers and smaller business people. Here new financial industries, private companies and schemes should be introduced to support the informal sector Indians and small businesses. So life insurance policy-providing company that serves such people exclusively with low premiums and more extensive benefits will be introduced. RBI retail direct will introduce new schemes that provide higher returns with an investment cap for new entrants from the poor and middle class. An ordinary family ready to pay a financial planner an annual fee of 2000 rupees should be able to find a financial planner who provides quality services at lower fees without compromising service quality.
1-2 individuals who started the TSC should be able to train 20+ employees with an online course system created by SEBI. SEBI-IRDAI will create a platform where the individual TSC owner will be the instructor and allocate resources for RIA guides to learn various financial planning domains and financial market instruments. General courses, specialist courses, monthly courses and a current affairs updation portal will be available. General and specialist courses will be for a six-month duration. The initially recruited 20 employees of RIA TSCs will get a stipend from the government directly during the six-month course duration. The pay is minimal for people below 25 and higher for people between 26 -60 to ensure that Generation X and Y are beneficiaries of this system. The government investment via stipend ensures that 2 lakh individuals find employment in 10,000 RIA-TSCs all over India. Government investment can be recovered slowly from the RIA-TSC GST income. Moreover, the new investment in various financial institutions resulting from new clients of RIA-TSCs justifies any government intervention. An online exam will be organised by SEBI-regulated authority, allocating a certificate of completion after clearing the exam. By the end of six months, the recruited individuals must be able to launch clients for RIA-TSC and should become able to maintain the recruited clients. The approach of RIA-TSCs should also be a DIY enabling system in which the public is slowly made aware of various financial market mechanisms, and people with inquisitive mindsets should become able to do things without external help in a few years. In the current affair updation portal, private companies can submit new schemes and various initiatives. Recent legal changes will be informed via this updation portal, and a single platform is essential to understand evolving aspects of the financial market. Many private websites that promote quality investment advice and content can also be promoted via the updation portal.
Every six months, there should be regular changes in financial institutions, such as introducing new companies and new schemes in financial markets to ensure that financial planners stay relevant among the public and are updated with regular changes. This will ensure the need for financial planners will remain the same in the long term. SEBI-IRDAI courses portal will have newly updated monthly courses, which can be made compulsory by RIA-TSC for their employees to increase their businesses. These courses will ensure the relevance of RIA TSCs continues.
A private company can develop a website with a general source code that can be distributed among RIA-TSCs. The government will provide the initial investment to create the main software and website, and later a small fee will be collected from RIA-TSC for annual maintenance of the domain, website and software. The website will track all the client investments separately by providing a profile for each person, ensuring that employers are within the ethical lines drawn by SEBI and RIA-TSC owners. Clients can also transfer their profiles to another RIA-TSC if they want to do so.
When an RIA-TSC employee recommends an investment, that recommendation is marked on the website by the employee. The owner of TSC can ensure that employees maintain ethical standards and company goodwill. This information is also accessible to the government, which can use oversight authority to crosscheck if RIA-TSC owners cross the line.
Special Note: This is the twentieth chapter of the book New India Manifesto by Blessen T. Sam. The concepts introduced in this book are unique, and referencing the book and the author is appreciated. Support the hard work of the author to modernise India by purchasing a print copy of the book from Amazon or Flipkart.